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Corporate tax rules

EU delays digital levy to focus on global minimum tax agreement



The EU has decided to postpone its digital levy until the autumn after a two-day meeting of G20 finance ministers in Venice, where a historic agreement was reached on building a more stable and fairer international tax architecture, writes Catherine Feore. 

Much of the renewed impetus for progress in this area has come from the new Biden administration. Today (12 July) the US Secretary of State for the Treasury Janet Yellen (pictured) met with the president and executive vice president of the European Commission for the economy, as well as with Economy Commissioner Paolo Gentiloni and European Central Bank President Christine Lagarde, before participating in today’s Eurogroup meeting of finance ministers. 

The new proposal will build on the ‘base erosion and profit shifting’ (BEPS) work of the OECD and address the two components of this work, namely the allocation of profits of multinational companies (MNEs) and an effective global minimum corporate tax rate. The US initially suggested that a minimum corporate tax rate should be set at 21%, but swiftly moved to 15%. 


Going into today’s Eurogroup meeting, Economy Commissioner Paolo Gentiloni said he had had an excellent meeting with the US Secretary of the Treasury Janet Yellen. Gentiloni said the main achievement of the weekend - the global agreement on taxation - would put an end to the “race to the bottom” to relocate taxes. He said: “In this framework, I informed Secretary Yellen of our decision to put on hold the proposal of an EU digital levy to allow us to concentrate on the last mile of this historic agreement.”

The European Commission’s spokesperson Daniel Ferrie said that the Commission would have to swiftly address the outstanding issues and finalize “various design elements”, together with a detailed implementation plan by October. The idea is that this would be approved by G20 heads of government at a summit in Rome. Ferrie said: “For this reason we have decided to put on hold our work on a proposal for a digital levy as a new ‘own resource’ during this period.”

The European Commission had tabled an announcement on a new EU digital levy for 14 July, then delayed to 22 July, it has now been delayed until after this agreement. The digital levy was envisaged as a new own resource which would help the EU in the repayment of the NextGenerationEU borrowing. New own resources need to be put in place by 1 January 2023.

Corporate tax rules

Nike’s attempt to block EU investigation into illegal state aid dismissed



Today (14 July) the EU’s General Court dismissed an action brought against the Commission’s decision to initiate the formal investigation into Dutch tax rulings that may constitute illegal state aid, writes Catherine Feore. 

The EU’s investigation concerns tax rulings issued by the Netherlands tax administration to Nike European Operations Netherlands (‘Nike’) in 2006, 2010 and 2015, and to Converse Netherlands (‘Converse’) in 2010 and 2015.

Nike and Converse are subsidiaries of a Dutch holding company, owned by Nike Inc. The tax rulings concerned royalties which did not correspond to the amount that would have been negotiated under market conditions for a comparable transaction between independent companies. Companies are expected to apply an ‘arms length principle’ as if they are not part of the same group. 


According to the Court, the contested decision contains a clear and unequivocal statement of reasons by the Commission that cannot be described as ‘incomplete’.

Nike argued that the Commission’s actions were prompted by the publication of an investigation by an international consortium of journalists in November 2017 and the ensuing political pressure that the Commission sent several further requests for information. They claimed that this “targeting” was unfair as they claim that the Netherlands issued 98 tax rulings similar to those of Nike.

The Court replied that the aim of initiating the formal investigation procedure was to enable the Commission to obtain all the views it needs in order to be able to adopt a definitive decision and was not bound beforehand to establish this. 

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Corporate tax rules

Big-tech companies to be given historical changes to their international tax agreements



Recently, some of the richest landmarks and countries of the world, have come to an agreement concerning the closing of international tax loopholes that have been endorsed by the biggest multinational corporations. Some of these tech companies have the largest share prices within the stock market, such as Apple, Amazon, Google and so on.

While tech taxation has long been an issue that international governments have had to agree on between themselves, betting too shares similar problems, especially due to its increase in popularity and allowed legalisation globally. Here we have provided a comparison of new betting sites which follow through on the correct taxation laws and legalities necessary for international usage.

During the G7 summit- which our last reports spoke about the topic of Brexit and trade deals, representatives of the United States, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada, Italy and Japan, came to a unified agreement to support the global corporation tax rates of at least 15%. It was in agreement that this should happen as these corporations should pay taxes where their businesses are in operation, and to the land they operate in. Tax evasion has long been propagated using initiatives and loopholes found by corporation entities, this unanimous decision will put a stop to hold tech companies responsible.


This decision is believed to be years in the making, and the G7 summits have long wanted to reach an agreement to make history and reform the global taxation system for the rising innovation and digital age that is on the horizon. Making companies like Apple, Amazon and Google take accountability, will keep taxation in check for what is estimated to be the surge of their developments and involvement overseas. Rishi Sunak, the United Kingdom’s Chancellor of the Exchequer, has mentioned that we are in the economic crisis of the pandemic, companies need to hold their weight and contribute to the reformation of the global economy. Reformed taxation is a step forward in achieving that. Global tech companies such as Amazon and Apple have massively increased in shareholder prices for each quarter after the major drop last year, making tech one of the most sustainable sectors to obtain taxes from. Of course, not all would agree on such comments, being that taxation loopholes have long been a thing and issue of the past.

The deal agreed upon will put massive pressure on other countries during the G20 meeting that is to occur in July. Having a base of agreement from the parties of G7 makes it very likely that other countries will come to an agreement, with nations such as Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico etc. who are to be in attendance. Lower tax haven countries like Ireland will expect lower rates with a minimum of 12.5% where others may be higher depending. It was expected that the 15 percent tax rate would be higher at the level of at least 21%, and countries who agree with this believe that a base level of 15% should be set with possibilities of more ambitious rates depending on destination and region that multinational companies operate and pay taxes from.

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Corporate tax rules

Big countries' tax deal to reveal rift in Europe




4 minute read

European Competition Commissioner Margrethe Vestager wearing a protective mask leaves the EU Commission headquarters in Brussels, Belgium July 15, 2020. REUTERS/Francois Lenoir/File Photo

A global deal on corporate tax looks set to bring to a climax a deep-seated European Union battle, pitting large members Germany, France and Italy against Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Read more.


Although the smaller EU partners at the centre of a years-long struggle over their favourable tax regimes, welcomed the Group of Seven deal on June 5. for a minimum corporate rate of at least 15%, some critics predict trouble implementing it.

The European Commission, the EU's executive, has long struggled to get agreement within the bloc on a common approach to taxation, a freedom which has been jealously guarded by all its 27 members, both large and small.

"The traditional EU tax holdouts are trying to keep the framework as flexible as possible so that they can continue to do business more or less as usual," Rebecca Christie of Brussels-based think tank Bruegel said.

Paschal Donohoe, Ireland's finance minister and president of the Eurogroup of his euro zone peers, gave the G7 wealthy countries' deal, which needs to be approved by a much wider group, a lukewarm welcome.

"Any agreement will have to meet the needs of small and large countries," he said on Twitter, pointing to the "139 countries" needed for a wider international accord.

And Hans Vijlbrief, deputy finance minister in the Netherlands, said on Twitter that his country supported the G7 plans and had already taken steps to stop tax avoidance.

Although EU officials have privately criticised countries such as Ireland or Cyprus, tackling them in public is politically charged and the bloc's blacklist of 'uncooperative' tax centres, due to its criteria, makes no mention of EU havens.

These have flourished by offering companies lower rates through so-called letter-box centres, where they can book profits without having a significant presence.

"European tax havens have no interest in giving in," Sven Giegold, a Green-party member of the European Parliament lobbying for fairer rules, said of the prospects for change.

Nevertheless, Luxembourg's finance minister Pierre Gramegna welcomed the G7 accord, adding that he would contribute to a wider discussion for a detailed international agreement.

Although Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands welcomed the long-fought for reform, Cyprus had a more guarded response.

"The small EU member states' should be acknowledged and taken into consideration," Cyprus's Finance Minister Constantinos Petrides told Reuters.

And even G7 member France may find it hard to completely adjust to the new international rules.

"Big countries like France and Italy also have tax strategies they are determined to keep," Christie said.

The Tax Justice Network ranks the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Ireland and Cyprus among the most prominent global havens, but also includes France, Spain and Germany on its list.

Europe's divisions flared up in 2015 after documents dubbed the 'LuxLeaks' showed how Luxembourg helped companies channel profits while paying little or no tax.

That prompted a clampdown by Margrethe Vestager, the EU's powerful antitrust chief, who employed rules that prevent illegal state support for companies, arguing that such tax deals amounted to unfair subsidies.

Vestager has opened investigations into Finnish paper packaging company Huhtamaki for back taxes to Luxembourg and investigating the Dutch tax treatment of InterIKEA and Nike.

The Netherlands and Luxembourg have denied the arrangements breach EU rules.

But she has had setbacks such as last year when the General Court threw out her order for iPhone maker Apple (AAPL.O) to pay €13 billion ($16bn) in Irish back taxes, a ruling which is now being appealed.

Vestager's order for Starbucks to pay millions in Dutch back taxes was also rejected.

Despite these defeats, judges have agreed with her approach.

"Fair taxation is a top priority for the EU," a spokesperson for the European Commission said: "We remain committed to ensuring that all businesses ... pay their fair share of tax."

The Netherlands in particular has underscored a willingness to change after criticism of its role as a conduit for multinationals to move profits from one subsidiary to another while paying no or low taxes.

It introduced a rule in January taxing royalties and interest payments sent by Dutch companies to jurisdictions where the corporate tax rate is less than 9%.

"The demand for fairness has grown," said Paul Tang, a Dutch member of the European Parliament. "And now it is combined with a need to finance investment."

($1 = €0.8214)

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