One in every three girls in developing countries is married before turning 18, and one in nine before 15. Child marriages limit future prospects as children are usually forced to drop out of school. Girls also face dangerous complications from pregnancy and childbirth, the leading causes of death among adolescent girls in developing countries. They are also at great risk from suffering abuse. On 11 April Parliament's women's rights and human rights subcommittee discussed the issue with experts.
Child marriage affects both girls and boys, but girls are most at risk, representing 82% of the children married. The child marriage rate is slowly declining worldwide, but population growth will increase the number of people living with the consequences of a child marriage: 950 million by 2030 (compared to 700 million today).
Child marriages occur on all continents but the highest rates are found in South Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa. The three countries with the highest rates of child marriage are Niger (77% of women are married before the age of 18), Bangladesh (74%) and Chad (69%). In a resolution adopted in plenary last week, MEPs called on the Bangladesh government to close the loopholes in their legislation on child marriages, allowing exemptions to the minimum age of 18 for women and 21 for men.
The factors driving child marriages
The causes of child marriages include poverty, gender inequality and parent´s fear for their children's security. Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, a Swedish member of the EPP group, said she had spoken to parents in refugee camps who saw marriage as the best way to provide their children with a future.
A recent study among Syrian refugees in Lebanon found that 24% of refugee girls between 15 and 17 were already married. Estimates indicate that child marriage rates are four times higher among Syrian refugees than among Syrians before the conflict.
How to tackle it
Experts and MEPs stressed the importance of working directly with the children and the communities to change social norms, guarantee access to health, education and legal services and ensure a strong and legal framework.
“Parliaments everywhere should adopt laws to protect children and in particular not deny girls of their dignity and ability to make fundamental choices in their own lives,” said Pier Antonio Panzeri, an Italian member of the S&D group, chair of the human rights subcommittee and co-chair of the hearing.
Professor Benyam Dawit Mezmur, chair of the UN committee on children's rights, stressed the importance of the role of regional organisations, while and Fredrik Malmberg, the Swedish ombudsman for children, called on EU countries to end double standards for asylum seekers. “Our legislation and our institutions should provide equal protection from all children,” he said.
Ms Vilija BLINKEVIČIŪTĖ (S&D, LT), Chair of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality and co-chair of the hearing remained that child and early marriage can be significantly lowered by education and economic empowerment for women.
“Tackling child marriage gives us an entry point to address a whole range of other issues,” said Lakshmi Sundaram, executive director of the non-governmental organisation Girls not Brides. She said child marriages could hold back other development efforts, “such as ending violence against women, keeping children in school, or getting rid of HIV/Aids”.
UK #Magnitsky Asset Freezing Legislation passed the second reading in the House of Lords
EU #HeadscarfBan ruling sparks faith group backlash
Companies may bar staff from wearing Islamic headscarves and other visible religious symbols under certain conditions, the European Union's top court ruled on Tuesday (14 March), setting off a storm of complaint from rights groups and religious leaders, writes Alastair Macdonald.
In its first ruling on a hot political issue across Europe, the Court of Justice (ECJ) found a Belgian firm which had a rule barring employees who dealt with customers from wearing visible religious and political symbols may not have discriminated against a receptionist dismissed for wearing a headscarf.
The judgment on that and a French case came on the eve of a Dutch election in which Muslim immigration is a key issue and weeks before France votes for a president in a similarly charged campaign. French conservative candidate Francois Fillon hailed the ruling as "an immense relief" that would contribute to "social peace".
But a campaign group backing the women said the ruling could shut many Muslim women out of the workforce. And European rabbis said the Court had added to rising incidences of hate crime to send a message that "faith communities are no longer welcome".
The judges in Luxembourg did find that the dismissals of the two women may, depending on the view of national courts, have breached EU laws against religious discrimination. They found in particular that the case of the French software engineer, fired after a customer complaint, may well have been discriminatory.
Reactions, however, focused on the conclusion that services firm G4S in Belgium was entitled to dismiss receptionist Samira Achbita in 2006 if, in pursuit of legitimate business interests, it fairly applied a broad dress code for all customer-facing staff to project an image of political and religious neutrality.
The Open Society Justice Initiative, a group backed by the philanthropist George Soros, said the ruling "weakens the guarantee of equality" offered by EU non-discrimination laws.
"In many member states, national laws will still recognize that banning religious headscarves at work is discrimination," policy office Maryam Hmadoun said.
"But in places where national law is weak, this ruling will exclude many Muslim women from the workplace."
Amnesty International welcomed the ruling on the French case that "employers are not at liberty to pander to the prejudices of their clients". But, it said, bans on religious symbols to show neutrality opened "a backdoor to precisely such prejudice".
The president of the Conference of European Rabbis, Chief Rabbi Pinchas Goldschmidt, complained: "This decision sends a signal to all religious groups in Europe". National court cases across Europe have included questions on the wearing of Christian crosses, Sikh turbans and Jewish skullcaps.
In the Belgian case, the ECJ said: "An internal rule of an undertaking which prohibits the visible wearing of any political, philosophical or religious sign does not constitute direct discrimination."
It was for Belgian judges to determine whether she may have been a victim of indirect discrimination if the rule put people of a particular faith at a disadvantage. But the rule could still be justified if it was "genuinely pursued in a consistent and systematic manner" to project an "image of neutrality".
However, in the case of Asma Bougnaoui, dismissed by French software company Micropole, it said it was up to French courts to determine whether there was such a rule. If her dismissal was based only on meeting the particular customer's preference, it saw "only very limited circumstances" in which a religious symbol could be objectively taken as reason for her not to work.
Activists demonstrate at the European Parliament calling for a strong law on #accessibility in Europe
Millions of people in Europe are still excluded from using basic products and services that are taken for granted for other people. Due to lack of accessibility, withdrawing money from a cash machine, entering a bank or any public building, using the metro, issuing a ticket, using a computer, calling a friend, watching TV, staying in a hotel, using a washing machine, are impossible for many people, including persons with disabilities and older people.
The European Parliament is currently discussing the European Commission’s proposal for the European Accessibility Act. This is a proposal for a law that could make several products and services in the European Union accessible for all citizens including 80 million persons with disabilities and 190 million people aged 50 and older.
The demonstration takes place because of our deep concern about the recently published draft report of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO Committee), which is the responsible Committee for the European Accessibility Act in the European Parliament. The Committee’s report is watering down the proposal for the Act to such an extent that fundamentally important parts of the Act may be lost.
The aim of today’s demonstration is to call on the IMCO Committee and the European Parliament to adopt a stronger and more ambitious position on the Accessibility Act. The European Union and almost all of its member states –except Ireland- have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD). Thus, they are obliged under article 9 of the CRPD to deliver accessible products and services to all their citizens.
Among others, we are calling on the European Parliament:
- to broaden the scope of the proposal by including the built environment and key products and services, such as household appliances and hotels;
- to make sure there is a comprehensive set of accessibility requirements in the Act;
- to ensure that the Accessibility Act has a strong relation with other legislation of the European Union, such as the Public Procurement Directive;
- to not exclude micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from applying the requirements of the Act;
- to ensure a robust enforcement mechanism.
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