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Brexit and the City of London: What has changed?

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Britain and the European Union agreed a new post-Brexit financial services pact on Friday that will allow them to co-operate on regulation but does little to improve the City of London’s access to the bloc, writes Huw Jones.

Britain left the European Union in January and its £130 billion ($179.17bn) financial services sector lost direct access to the bloc, which had been its biggest customer, worth about £30bn per year.

The relationship helped cement London’s position as one of the world’s biggest financial centres and as a major contributor to British tax revenues.

The following details how the City of London’s ability to access the EU market and serve clients in the bloc has changed.

WHAT CHANGED IN JANUARY FOR THE CITY?

Financial services were not part of the EU-UK trade deal that came into effect in January. Blanket access for British financial firms to the EU has ended and any future access will depend on an EU system known as equivalence.

WHAT IS THE NEW COOPERATION PACT?

The pact sets up a forum, similar to what the EU already has had for years with the United States. It will provide a space for informal and non-binding discussions between UK and EU financial regulators, but not negotiate market access.

WHAT IS EQUIVALENCE?

This refers to an EU system that grants market access to foreign banks, insurers and other financial firms if their home rules are deemed by Brussels to be “equivalent”, or as robust as regulations in the bloc.

It is a patchy form of access that excludes financial activities like retail banking. It is a far cry from continued “passporting”, or full access, that banks lobbied for in the aftermath of the 2016 British referendum vote to leave the EU.

Access under the system of equivalence can be withdrawn at one month’s notice, making it unreliable, but Britain hopes the new regulatory forum can help persuade Brussels to make the system more predictable.

HAS EQUIVALENCE BEEN GRANTED?

Brussels has only granted equivalence so far for two activities: derivatives clearing houses in Britain since January for 18 months, and settling Irish securities transactions until June.

Brussels says it is in “no rush” to grant equivalence given that it wants to build up its own capital markets to cut reliance on the City and see how far Britain wants to diverge from rules used in the bloc.

Faced with limited or no direct access, financial firms in London have already moved 7,500 jobs and over a trillion pounds in assets to new EU hubs to avoid disruption to EU clients.

Trading euro stocks, bonds and derivatives have left London, turning Amsterdam into Europe’s biggest share trading centre. Britain and the EU have agreed that asset managers in London can continue to pick stocks for funds in the EU.

WILL EU FINANCIAL FIRMS HAVE TO LEAVE LONDON?

No. To help maintain London as a global financial centre Britain is allowing EU firms to stay for up to three years, in the hope they will apply for permanent UK authorisation. Britain is also unilaterally allowing financial firms in the EU to offer selected services like credit ratings directly to British customers.

Britain has allowed UK firms to use derivatives trading platforms in the bloc to avoid ruptures in business with EU clients.

WHAT’S ALL THIS TALK ABOUT DIVERGENCE?

Brussels says it won’t grant market access until it has a clear idea of how far Britain wants to diverge from financial rules inherited from the bloc, fearing that the City will end up with a competitive edge over the bloc’s banks.

Britain has said it won’t apply some EU rules, will tweak others like insurance capital norms, and will introduce its own version of pending European regulation for investment firms.

It is also easing listing rules, making Britain more attractive for fintechs, and due to publish proposals to make the capital market more globallly attractive. It has already started by easing curbs on “dark” or anonymous share trading, a practice EU countries distrust.

Britain insists it won’t lower standards and will stick to any rules agreed at the global level.

WILL BREXIT END LONDON’S REIGN AS EUROPE’S TOP FINANCIAL

CENTRE?

For now, no. London still has a towering lead over rivals Frankfurt, Milan and Paris when it comes to trading stocks, currencies and derivatives and playing host to asset managers.

Financial firms say shifting more capital out of London than is necessary under Brexit would cause unnecessary and costly market fragmentation.

But in the longer term, if the EU takes a tough line on equivalence and its financial centres reach a critical mass in trading key asset classes, the attractions of London as a financial hub would diminish.

($1 = £0.7256)

Brexit

Brexit tensions are a test for Europe, says French minister

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French Junior Minister for European Affairs Clement Beaune speaks during a press conference to outline France's strategy for the deployment of future COVID-19 vaccines, in Paris as the coronavirus disease outbreak continues in France, December 3, 2020. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier/Pool

French European Affairs Junior Minister Clement Beaune (pictured) said on Monday (14 June) that current tensions over Brexit between British Prime Minister Boris Johnson's government and the European Union were "a test" for Europe, Reuters.

The tensions between Britain and the EU threatened to overshadow the Group of Seven summit's conclusion on Sunday, with London accusing France of "offensive" remarks that Northern Ireland was not part of the United Kingdom. Read more.

"Mr Johnson thinks that you can sign deals with the Europeans and not respect them and that Europe will not react. It is a test for Europe," Beaune told Europe 1 radio.

"I am telling the British people, (Brexit) commitments must be respected... If it is not the case, retaliatory measures could be taken," Beaune added.

During talks with Emmanuel Macron at the G7 summit, Johnson queried how the French president would react if Toulouse sausages could not be sold in Paris markets, echoing London's accusation that the EU is preventing sales of British chilled meats in Northern Ireland.

"In Northern Ireland there are sausage import problems... Why? Because when you leave the European Union, you have necessarily some (trade) barriers," Beaune said.

"I cannot tell the French or the Europeans that Britain can export via (EU member) Ireland some products such as meat without any control... That is what it is all about. Brexit has consequences."

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Ex-EU Brexit negotiator Barnier: UK reputation at stake in Brexit row

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Head of the Task Force for Relations with the UK, Michel Barnier attendsthe debate on EU-UK trade and cooperation agreement during the second day of a plenary session at the European Parliament in Brussels, Belgium April 27, 2021. Olivier Hoslet/Pool via REUTERS

Michel Barnier, the European Union's former Brexit negotiator, said on Monday (14 June) that the reputation of the United Kingdom was at stake regarding tensions over Brexit.

EU politicians have accused British Prime Minister Boris Johnson of not respecting engagements made regarding Brexit. Growing tensions between Britain and the EU threatened to overshadow the Group of Seven summit on Sunday, with London accusing France of "offensive" remarks that Northern Ireland was not part of the UK. Read more

"The United Kingdom needs to pay attention to its reputation," Barnier told France Info radio. "I want Mr Johnson to respect his signature," he added.

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Germany’s Merkel urges pragmatic approach to Northern Ireland

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German Chancellor Angela Merkel (pictured) called on Saturday for a “pragmatic solution” to disagreements over part of the Brexit deal that covers border issues with Northern Ireland, Reuters Read more.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson said Britain will do "whatever it takes" to protect its territorial integrity in a trade dispute with the European Union, threatening emergency measures if no solution was found.

The EU has to defend its common market, Merkel said, but on technical questions there could be a way forward in the dispute, she told a news conference during a Group of Seven leaders' summit.

"I have said that I favour a pragmatic solution for contractual agreements, because a cordial relationship is of utmost significance for Britain and the European Union," she said.

Referring to a conversation she had with U.S. President Joe Biden about geopolitical issues, Merkel said they agreed that Ukraine must continue to remain a transit country for Russian natural gas once Moscow completes the controversial Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea.

The $11 billion pipeline will carry gas to Germany directly, something Washington fears could undermine Ukraine and increase Russia's influence over Europe.

Biden and Merkel are due to meet in Washington on July 15, and the strain on bilateral ties caused by the project will be on the agenda.

The G7 sought on Saturday to counter China's growing influence by offering developing nations an infrastructure plan that would rival President Xi Jinping's multi-trillion-dollar Belt and Road initiative. L5N2NU045

Asked about the plan, Merkel said the G7 was not yet ready to specify how much financing could be made available.

“Our financing instruments often are not as quickly available as developing countries need them,” she said

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