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Investment plan must live up to #GreenDeal ambitions



The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) urges all EU institutions and member states to continue with a rapid and aligned solidarity-based response to the coronavirus pandemic and to adopt additional measures promoting sustainable investments with a view to the European Green Deal. Member states should swiftly agree on a Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) for 2021-2027 in line with the Green Deal’s ambitions.

On 10 June, the EESC adopted an opinion package on the funding of the European Green Deal, the EU’s road map to a sustainable economy. In its opinions, the Committee states that the budgetary allocation for the Green Deal, private and public investment, and the efficiency of the EU coronavirus response are all crucial to achieving the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the objectives of the Green Deal. The EESC therefore calls for an adequate budgetary allocation, a comprehensive enabling framework for sustainable investments and a continued EU solidary-based response to coronavirus.

Carlos Trias Pintó, rapporteur for the EESC opinion on the European Green Deal Investment Plan (EGDIP), said: "The outbreak of coronavirus will have a significant impact on our economy, on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Green Deal objectives and on the EU budget. Recovery efforts should therefore focus on the very same objectives. The Green Deal must become the backbone of our economy."

EESC calls for a reinforced EU budget for 2021-2027

The Committee sees the EGDIP as the first comprehensive policy measure to fulfil the very ambitious targets of the Green Deal but, irrespective of the possible impact of the coronavirus crisis on the future MFF, it is concerned about the budgetary allocation for the Green Deal under the future long-term budget.

"The budgetary provisions for the Green Deal under the new MFF are insufficient," said Petr Zahradník, co-rapporteur for the EESC opinions on the EGDIP and on the Just Transition Fund (JTF) and amendments to the Common Provisions Regulation. "The next EU budget must live up to the ambitions of the Green Deal and a Recovery Plan. It should be reinforced and its spending ceiling temporarily expanded to 2%." In the EESC’s view, this would provide the financial resources needed and could support the issuing of community bonds as part of a strong recovery plan.

Ester Vitale, rapporteur for the EESC opinion on the JTF and amendments to the Common Provisions Regulation, explained: "The budget increase could be made up either by introducing new own resources or by increasing the contributions from the member states."

In addition to the temporary solidarity measures designed to mitigate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, the Committee calls for a reinforced European Investment Stabilisation Function and the immediate implementation of the Budgetary Instrument for Convergence and Competitiveness with an increased budget under the next MFF. Increasing the budgetary resources for the Just Transition Mechanism (JTM), which includes the JTF, is equally important.

Civil society proposes measures to raise investments for a just transition

In the EESC’s view, the JTF's financial framework needs to be clearer. The Fund's budgetary provisions will have to be offset by transfers from the European Regional Development Fund/European Social Fund+, co-financing by member states and substantial private investment as well as the public sector loans facility operated by the EIB. Complementarity of these instruments must be guaranteed.

The EESC is aware that the success of the EGDIP and the JFT depends on a new type of social partnership between the private and public sectors in terms of funding and shared responsibility. This is why the Committee welcomes the proposed new incentives for public and private sustainable investment and financing and supports the improvement of EU fiscal governance.

As regards how to further increase investments, Petr Zahradník said: "We need appropriate tax treatment for crowdfunders and donors to complete the stimulus policy." An efficient and integrated Capital Markets Union and Banking Union could also play an important role. The EESC therefore advocates completing Economic and Monetary Union.

Welcoming the proposed flexibility for state aid rules, Ester Vitale said: "State aid should assist the transition to a greener and more inclusive economy. It should be used to promote employment among those who are often cut off from the open labour market. Public investment in environmental protection and climate change should be excluded from the constraints of the Stability Pact."

An investment-enabling framework should moreover provide equal access to information, better public statistical data and support for the identification, structuring and execution of sustainable projects to further enhance sustainable private investment and socially responsible public procurement. Standardisation of taxonomy and non-financial information in the public and private sectors could also ease further engagement.

Civil society must have a say in the just transition

As regards the JTF, the EESC respects and supports the important role played by the regions in programming, governance and implementation. However, it recommends taking account of different levels of preparedness in member states and regions, different potential for producing clean energy in the EU and different attitudes on the part of individuals and regions towards an active contribution to climate protection.

The social partners and civil society organisations could push for climate-proof spending and should therefore be involved in developing and implementing policies and strategies. This includes active and real involvement in territorial planning, any dedicated JTF programmes and the European Semester. The latter should focus on the SDGs and the Green Deal and apply a more comprehensive EU taxonomy.

Education and training are key to the transition to a just and green economy

Cohesion policy resources to strengthen and reinvigorate the secondary and university education system should be increased and a substantial portion of JTF resources devoted to generating needed investments to help workers transition from one occupation to another.

"Member states should also enhance financial education programmes by including sustainable finance," said Carlos Trias Pintó. This could further encourage public administrations to introduce tax incentives for public and private investment in green initiatives, which are in the public interest and have a positive social impact, and guarantee informed investment choices by private and public investors.

Lastly, the EESC also notes that environmental and climate investments to support action outside the EU are needed, especially under the Africa strategy.

Electricity interconnectivity

EPO-IEA study: Rapid rise in battery innovation playing key role in clean energy transition



  • Electricity storage inventions show annual growth of 14% over past decade, joint study by European Patent Office (EPO) and International Energy Agency (IEA) finds

  • Amount of batteries and other energy storage needs to grow fiftyfold by 2040 to put world on track for climate and sustainable energy goals

  • Electric vehicles now main drivers of battery innovation

  • Advances in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries focus of most new inventions

  • Asian countries have strong lead in global battery technology race

  • Accelerated innovation needed to drive forward Europe’s clean energy transition in order to meet the aim of the European Green Deal

 Improving the capacity to store electricity is playing a key role in the transition to clean energy technologies. Between 2005 and 2018, patenting activity in batteries and other electricity storage technologies grew at an average annual rate of 14% worldwide, four times faster than the average of all technology fields, according to a joint study published today by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the International Energy Agency (IEA).

The report, Innovation in batteries and electricity storage – a global analysis based on patent data, shows that batteries account for nearly 90% of all patenting activity in the area of electricity storage, and that the rise in innovation is chiefly driven by advances in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries used in consumer electronic devices and electric cars. Electric mobility in particular is fostering the development of new lithium-ion chemistries aimed at improving power output, durability, charge/discharge speed and recyclability. Technological progress is also being fuelled by the need to integrate larger quantities of renewable energy such as wind and solar power into electricity networks.

The study also shows that Japan and South Korea have established a strong lead in battery technology globally, and that technical progress and mass production in an increasingly mature industry have led to a significant drop in battery prices in recent years – by nearly 90% since 2010 in the case of Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles, and by around two-thirds over the same period for stationary applications, including electricity grid management.

Developing better and cheaper electricity storage is a major challenge for the future: According to the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario, for the world to meet climate and sustainable energy goals, close to 10 000 gigawatt-hours of batteries and other forms of energy storage will be required worldwide by 2040 – 50 times the size of the current market. Effective storage solutions are needed to drive forward Europe’s clean energy transition in order to meet the aim of the European Green Deal: to make the continent climate-neutral by 2050.

Electricity storage technology is critical when it comes to meeting the demand for electric mobility and achieving the shift towards renewable energy that is needed if we are to mitigate climate change,” said EPO President António Campinos. “The rapid and sustained rise in electricity storage innovation shows that inventors and businesses are tackling the challenge of the energy transition. The patent data reveals that while Asia has a strong lead in this strategic industry, the US and Europe can count on a rich innovation ecosystem, including a large number of SMEs and research institutions, to help them stay in the race for the next generation of batteries.”

IEA projections make it clear that energy storage will need to grow exponentially in the coming decades to enable the world to meet international climate and sustainable energy goals. Accelerated innovation will be essential for achieving that growth,” said IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol. “By combining the complementary strengths of the IEA and the EPO, this report sheds new light on today’s innovation trends to help governments and businesses make smart decisions for our energy future.”

Rise of electric vehicles boosting Li-ion innovation

The report, which presents the major trends in electricity storage innovation between 2000 and 2018, measured in terms of international patent families, finds that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology, dominant in portable electronics and electric vehicles, has fuelled most of the battery innovation since 2005. In 2018, advances in Li-ion cells were responsible for 45% of patenting activity related to battery cells, compared with just 7% for cells based on other chemistries.

In 2011, electric vehicles overtook consumer electronics as the biggest growth driver for Li-ion battery-related (See graph: Number of IPFs related to applications for battery packs). This trend highlights the ongoing work of the automobile industry to decarbonize and develop alternative clean energy technologies. Ensuring batteries in electric vehicles are effective and reliable is crucial to encouraging their take-up by consumers post-2020, after which stricter EU-wide emissions targets will apply to fossil fuel vehicles.

The share of inventions from European countries is relatively modest in all fields of Li-ion technologies, but it is twice as high in emerging fields compared with more established ones, for example generating 11% of inventions in both Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), which are both seen as promising alternatives to current Li-ion chemistries.

Improvements to battery packs for electric cars have also produced positive spill-over effects on stationary applications, including electricity grid management.

The report also shows that patenting activity in the manufacturing of battery cells and cell-related engineering developments has grown threefold over the last decade. These two fields together accounted for nearly half (47%) of all patenting activity related to battery cells in 2018, a clear indication of the maturity of the industry and the strategic importance of developing efficient mass production.

In addition, other storage technologies, such as supercapacitors and redox flow batteries, are also rapidly emerging with the potential to address some of the weaknesses of Li-ion batteries.

Asian companies in the lead

The study shows that Japan has a clear lead in the global race for battery technology, with a 40.9% share of international patent families in battery technology in 2000-2018, followed by South Korea with a 17.4% share, Europe (15.4%), the US (14.5%) and China (6.9%). Asian companies account for nine of the top ten global applicants for patents related to batteries, and for two-thirds of the top 25, which also includes six firms from Europe and two from the US. The top five applicants (Samsung, Panasonic, LG, Toyota and Bosch) together generated over a quarter of all IPFs between 2000 and 2018. In Europe, innovation in electricity storage is dominated by Germany, which alone accounts for more than half of international patent families in battery technologies originating from Europe (See graph: Geographic origins of European IPFs in battery technology, 2000-2018).

While innovation in battery technology is still largely concentrated in a limited group of very large companies, in the US and Europe, smaller companies, universities and public research organizations also play a significant role. For the US, SMEs account for 34.4% and universities/research organizations for 13.8% of IPFs filed. For Europe, the figures are 15.9% and 12.7% respectively, contrasting with Japan (3.4%/3.5%) and the Republic of Korea (4.6%/9.0%).

More information

Read the executive summary

Read the full study

Notes to the editor

About international patent families

The patent analysis in this report is based on the concept of international patent families (IPFs). Each IPF represents a unique invention and includes patent applications filed and published in at least two countries or filed with and published by a regional patent office, as well as published international patent applications. IPFs represent inventions deemed important enough by the inventor to seek protection internationally, and only a relatively small percentage of applications actually meet this threshold. This concept can therefore be used as a sound basis for comparing international innovation activities, as it reduces the biases that may arise when comparing patent applications across different national patent offices.

About the EPO

With nearly 7 000 staff, the European Patent Office (EPO) is one of the largest public service institutions in Europe. Headquartered in Munich with offices in Berlin, Brussels, The Hague and Vienna, the EPO was founded with the aim of strengthening co-operation on patents in Europe. Through the EPO's centralised patent granting procedure, inventors are able to obtain high-quality patent protection in up to 44 countries, covering a market of some 700 million people. The EPO is also the world's leading authority in patent information and patent searching.

About the International Energy Agency
The International Energy Agency (IEA) is at the heart of global dialogue on energy, providing authoritative analysis, data, policy recommendations, and real-world solutions to help countries bring about secure and sustainable energy for all. Taking an all-fuels, all-technologies approach, the IEA advocates policies that enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy. The IEA is supporting clean energy transitions all over the world in order to help achieve global sustainability goals.

Media contacts European Patent Office

Luis Berenguer Giménez

Principal Director Communication / Spokesperson

Tel.: +49 89 2399 1203
[email protected]



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Financial stability: Commission adopts time-limited decision giving market participants the time needed to reduce exposure to UK central counterparties



The European Commission has adopted a time-limited decision to give financial market participants 18 months to reduce their exposure to UK central counterparties (CCPs). A CCP is an entity that reduces systemic risk and enhances financial stability by standing between the two counterparties in a derivatives contract (i.e. acting as buyer to the seller and seller to the buyer of risk). A CCP's main purpose is to manage the risk that could arise if one of the counterparties defaults on the deal.

Central clearing is key for financial stability by mitigating credit risk for financial firms, reducing contagion risks in the financial sector, and increasing market transparency. An Economy that Works for People Executive Vice-President Valdis Dombrovskis said: “Clearing houses, or CCPs, play a systemic role in our financial system. We are adopting this decision to protect our financial stability, which is one of our key priorities.

"This time-limited decision has a very practical rationale, because it gives EU market participants the time they need to reduce their excessive exposures to UK-based CCPs, and EU CCPs the time to build up their clearing capability. Exposures will be more balanced as a result. It is a matter of financial stability.”

The heavy reliance of the EU financial system on services provided by UK-based CCPs raises important issues related to financial stability and requires the scaling down of EU exposures to these infrastructures.

Accordingly, industry is strongly encouraged to work together in developing strategies that will reduce their reliance on UK CCPs that are systemically important for the Union. On 1 January 2021, the UK will leave the Single Market. The temporary equivalence decision aims to protect financial stability in the EU and give market participants the time needed to reduce their exposure to UK CCPs.

The text is available here and a full press release is online

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Financial Stability: EU rules on third-country central counterparties enter into force



On 1 January 2020, new EU rules under the ‘European Market Infrastructure Regulation' or EMIR 2.2 on the supervision of EU and non-EU central counterparties (CCPs) became applicable. CCPs play a systemic role in the financial system as they act as a buyer for every seller and a seller for every buyer of derivatives contracts. In order for the new rules to be given full effect, they needed to be complemented with three delegated acts.

The acts have been published today in the Official Journal of the European Union and will enter into force today (22 September). These new rules will improve the EU's capacity to manage and address external risks to the financial system. They will also contribute to the resilience of financial market infrastructure, which is important to promote the international role of the euro and strengthen Europe's open strategic autonomy.

The delegated acts specify, among other things, how the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) can supervise non-EU CCPs, depending on the degree of systemic risk that they pose to the EU's financial system or to any of its member states. They set out criteria on how ESMA should tier third-country CCPs based on their systemic importance, and how ESMA should assess if CCPs' compliance with third country rules is comparable to EU rules.

An Economy that Works for People Executive Vice President Valdis Dombrovskis said: “Protecting financial stability is one of our key priorities and CCPs play a systemic role in our financial system. We need to have predictable, proportionate and effective rules to address risks related to non-EU CCPs. This is in line with international efforts to bring stability and transparency to global derivative markets.”

For more information, see here and here

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