More than 2,000 years before the scientific means were developed to prove the existence of atoms, ancient Greeks already theorized about their existence. Their descendants continue to be at the forefront of scientific research as shown by the Nestor project in Pylos, in south-western Greece. This involves creating an underwater telescope at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. It will track neutrinos in a bid to unravel some of the universe’s biggest mysteries.
Neutrinos, as American physicist Dr Frederick Reines explained, are “the tiniest quantity of reality ever imagined by a human being”. Travelling at the speed of light and unaffected by magnetic fields, neutrinos cross the earth carrying invaluable information from distant astrophysical sources. Knowing more about them, means understanding how the universe was made and operates today.
However, accurately tracking them proves very challenging. Cosmic rays hitting the earth’s surface can distort the readings, however they can be blocked by placing a telescope to detect them deep under water.
Nestor, which stands for Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research and also shares its name with Homer's king of Pylos, is being developed for that reason. Once finished, it will be installed at a depth of 5,200 metres some 30 kilometres away from the Peloponnese mainland.
It will most likely be co-funded by Horizon 2020, the EU’s flagship innovation and research programme, which between 2014-2020 will allocate €80 billion to research, innovation and technological developments in the member states.
“The EU has significant technology capabilities and can showcase its highly skilled scientists through this initiative," said Dr Giorgos Stavropoulos, a distinguished physicist in the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (INPP), responsible for the experiment. Nestor could also be used to record seismological, oceanographic and other environmental data.
As with other infrastructure projects co-funded by the EU Structural Funds and the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructure, Pylos is feeling the benefits, becoming more attractive to companies. In a country that is struggling to exit the current economic crisis, this experiment comes as a great opportunity for economic development.
Education: Commission launches expert group to step up investment in education in times of COVID-19
The expert group on quality in investment in education and training launched by Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth Commissioner Mariya Gabriel in February 2021 has met for the first time. The 15 experts, selected from almost 200 applicants, will identify policies that can effectively boost education and training outcomes as well as inclusiveness and efficiency of spending. Gabriel said: “The COVID-19 pandemic has shown us how critical teachers, schools and universities are to our society. Today, we have the chance of rethinking the EU's education and training sector, and put it back at the core of our economies and societies. Therefore, we need clarity and solid evidence on how to best invest in education. I am confident that this expert group will help the Commission and the member states to build stronger, more resilient and more equitable education and training systems than before.”
The group will focus on the quality of teachers and trainers, education infrastructure and digital education. Their evidence-based evaluation will help the Commission and member states to find innovative, smart solutions to current educational challenges. This work is key to achieve a sustainable recovery and complete the transition towards a green and digital Europe. The expert group was set out in the Communication on Achieving the European Education Area by 2025 to maintain focus on national and regional investment and improve their effectiveness. It will present an interim report at the end of 2021 and a final report at the end of 2022. More information is available online.
French primary pupils return to school despite high COVID numbers
France sent primary and nursery pupils back to school on Monday (26 April), the first phase of reopening after a three-week COVID-19 lockdown, even as daily new infections remained stubbornly high.
President Emmanuel Macron said a return to school would help fight social inequality, allowing parents who struggle to pay for childcare to get back to work, but trade unions warned that new infections would lead to a "torrent" of classroom closures.
In the upmarket Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, pupils wore face masks and rubbed disinfectant gel on their hands as they filed through the front door of the Achille Peretti primary school. A poster reminded the youngsters to stay a metre apart.
"They're young, they need an adult to help them, but most parents have a job and it's burdensome to ask them to do the school work," said teacher Elodie Passon.
Middle and high school pupils are due to return to the classroom next Monday, when the government will also lift domestic travel restrictions that have been in place nationwide since early April.
The open-air terraces of bars and restaurants, as well as some business and cultural venues, might be allowed to reopen from mid-May if the curbs have sufficiently slowed the spread of the coronavirus, the government has said.
Some doctors and public health experts have warned it may be too early to ease restrictions.
On Sunday (25 April), the seven-day average of new cases fell below 30,000 for the first time in over a month, from about 38,000 when the lockdown began, though the number of COVID-19 patients in critical care still hovered near a third-wave high of 5,984.
Education and skills: Commission launches public consultation to support lifelong learning and employability
The Commission has launched a public consultation on a European approach to micro-credentials for lifelong learning and employability. During the next 12 weeks, the consultation will collect ideas for a common definition of micro-credentials – recognition of short, targeted learning courses – and for the development of EU standards ensuring their quality and transparency. Within Europe, a growing number of people need to update their knowledge, skills and competences to fill in the gap between their formal education and the needs of a fast-changing society and labour market. Public and private stakeholders are rapidly developing short-term learning courses. ‘Micro-credentials' are a crucial step to certify the outcomes of these experiences, thus supporting people to improve or gain new skills throughout their careers and reaching out to a more diverse group of learners. Micro-credentials have the potential to make education more inclusive, and will promote flexible, short term learning opportunities.
Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth Commissioner Mariya Gabriel said: “In these unprecedented times, our learning opportunities need to adapt. They should be flexible, modular and accessible to anyone wanting to develop their competences. Our European approach to micro-credentials will facilitate the recognition and validation of these important short learning experiences. It will contribute to making lifelong learning a reality across the EU.”
Jobs and Social Rights Commissioner Nicolas Schmit said: “As member states strive to meet the target of 60% of adults in annual training set by the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan, we need to make learning as user-centric as possible. Whether you take a short course in coding through a VET provider or learn a foreign language with a language school, your newly-acquired skills should be recognised throughout the European labour market. The public consultation that we launch today is an important step to put this flagship action from our European Skills Agenda into practice.”
The public consultation is available online.
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