Voters in Guinea will go to the polls on Sunday to a highly controversial presidential election, an event being watched with growing concern by the EU and the international community.
This is partly due to the street demos and violence that followed legislative elections in March.
Guinea, a west African country with a population of just over 12 million, has rich deposits of diamonds and gold. But while it may be resource rich it remains one of the poorest countries in Africa.
At the heart of the controversy is 82-year-old incumbent Alpha Conde’s quest to undo term limits that would have him step down from the presidency in October, after 10 years in office, enabling Guinea’s first-ever democratic succession. Under the new Constitution, Condé would be eligible to stay in office for 12 more years.
Since his initial election in 2010, Condé has taken a sharp turn towards authoritarianism and has seen his reputation tarnished by a number of corruption scandals.
Crucially, there will be no EU observer team attending Sunday's election. These are normally sent to ensure that elections are free, fair and not fraudulent but a European Commission spokesman told this website the EU has not been invited by the Guinean authorities to deploy an observation mission.
In light of this there are growing calls for the EU to be far more vocal in calling for a “fair and free” election and to respond to any electoral violations with sanctions similar to those it recently imposed on the regime in Belarus.
Nabila Massrali, EU spokesperson for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, said: “As the October 18 election deadline approaches, the EU shares the concerns already expressed by regional and international actors about the conditions under which it is preparing.”
She said the EU “deplored” the violence and clashes in March “which left several victims” and called on the authorities to “conduct independent and in-depth investigations in order to prosecute the perpetrators”.
She added: “The EU calls for respect for public freedoms, including the right of every citizen to demonstrate peacefully, within the framework provided by law, without being worried, and to express political opinions without being arrested or imprisoned.”
Following the validation of the candidatures by the Constitutional Court on September 9, she said it is now imperative that the competent Guinean authorities and institutions guarantee an "impartial, transparent, inclusive and fair" electoral process, "winning the support of citizens and ensuring a ballot for the results. credible and accepted by all”.
“It is important to avoid violence and a deterioration of the situation before, during and after the election.”
In this context, she said the EU “reaffirms its full support for all initiatives” of ECOWAS, the African Union, the United Nations and the International Organization of La Francophonie aimed at “defusing tensions and restoring a dialogue between the parties in with a view to strengthening the electoral framework.”
“The EU therefore calls on the entire political class and civil society, as well as the administrations concerned, to engage in a constructive and peaceful manner in order to ensure that this electoral process is consensual and transparent and participates in the long term in the reconciliation between all Guineans.
“In particular, it encourages the authorities to take initiatives to help calm the political climate.”
She noted: “In this regard, measures such as the resolution of the dispute over the local elections of February 2018 and the release of all detained opponents would be likely to create a climate favorable to dialogue.”
Similar sentiments were voiced by Willy Fautre, director of Human Rights Without Frontiers, a leading Brussels-based rights NGO, who told this website that the election is "intrinsically rigged".
He added: "The current president should not be allowed to run because the number of mandates is limited to two and it will be its third bid. What should the EU do in such a case? Well, the High Representative Josep Borrell does not condemn this situation.”
Fautre says the EU should closely collaborate with ECOWAS, the African Union, the United Nations and the United Nations to Conakry to ensure that the vote is “credible, transparent, inclusive and violence-free.”
He added: “In case the election is rigged, Brussels should not hesitate to reject the results if it wants to remain a beacon of democracy and human rights in the eyes of the Guinean people and the Africans in general.”
He went on: “After the election, the EU should invest its energy to prosecute those who were responsible for the violence that accompanied the elections in March and for the killings. The EU needs to strengthen its ties with Guinea which is a young and dynamic country. One day, its youth will come to power and the EU will then be remembered as an effective defender of democracy and human rights in their country.”
Fautre aded: “Political instability and violence in Guinea has made this country one of the major sources of migration from Africa in Europe. By fighting for fair elections, democracy, human rights and economic development, the EU will contribute to slow down the flow of migrants from this country.”
A legacy of a long period of misgovernance has left Guinea one of the poorest countries in Africa and Condé, Guinea’s first democratically elected leader, appears to be intent on staying in office past his second term while governing in an increasingly authoritarian manner. These actions have disappointed citizens who had hoped the country would move away from its authoritarian past.
Guinea is, once again, is at a crossroads with the democratic rebirth promised by Conde a decade ago seemingly far out of reach A particularly strong shock to the system was the removal of the head of Guinea’s Constitutional Court, Kelefa Sall, a vocal critic of the president, in March 2018. Seven months later, the Minister of Justice stepped down in protest of the move, leaving a vacuum Conde was only too happy to exploit for his own benefit.
Tensions over constitutional reform have only heightened since then, and the constitutional referendum in March did little to assuage Guinean fears, with less than one third of the population turning out amid an opposition boycott. At least 32 protesters were killed by police in the run-up to the polls. Deeming that the electoral process fell below the standards for a credible vote, international electoral observers did not participate.
Following the referendum, key international stakeholders, including the EU, ECOWAS, the UN Office in West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS), the United States and France all expressed serious concerns over the process’ credibility and inclusiveness.
The opposition movement has given rise to the National Front for the Defence of the Constitution (FNDC), an umbrella group of political parties, labour unions and civic groups campaigning against Conde’s constitutional coup.
At least 32 protesters were killed by police in the run-up to the polls. Deeming that the electoral process fell below the standards for a credible vote, international electoral observers did not participate.
Resetting the term-limit clock and increasing the power of the presidency goes against the wishes of the Guinean population, 82 percent of whom told Afrobarometer that they favour a two-term limit.
Conde, though, now faces an unexpectedly strong challenge in the shape of the country’s former prime minister, Cellou Dalein Diallo.
On the eve of the election Diallo spoke exclusively to this website, saying: “With the unprecedented mobilization of Guinean youth who are determined to ensure a flawless ballot and strict compliance with its outcome, Alpha Conde will commit a very serious fault by abusing the Guineans in their choice, as in 2010 and 2015.”
Diallo, seen as a potent challenger, added: “The aggression and violence many fear he is about to use can only spill the blood of Guineans who will not allow themselves to be intimidated. Guinea is rich in diversity and the legitimate aspiration of its people is to freely choose its leaders without having to shed blood or sacrifice the lives of young people.
“The international community should anticipate and help Guinea to avoid this mess.”
After two terms of the strongman in power, Guinea has fallen to a lowly 174 out of 189 countries in the Human Development Index. Many fear that if Conde is allowed a third stint at Guinea’s helm, the impoverished African nation is only likely to sink even lower.
Such fears are echoed by Alix Boucher, of the Africa Centre for Strategic Studies, who said: “The country is now at a crossroads with competing visions for the future. By orchestrating the adoption of a new constitution, Condé evidently wishes to consolidate power within the office of the presidency."
He wants the EU and other human rights defenders to urge Condé’s government to allow free and fair elections and refrain from cracking down on protesters and the opposition.
Elsewhere, an editorial by European Views, an EU-focused news platform, noted that the “dubious legality” of the referendum earlier this year prompted only a “lukewarm” rebuke from the EU.
Within just a few days of announcing his candidacy, Diallo had won the vociferous support of thousands of his countrymen but Amnesty International also found evidence of “intimidatory tactics” being used by Condé’s camp.
Conde has, noted the charity, closed borders with both Guinea-Bissau and Senegal in an attempt to disefranchize the high number of Diallo-supporting expatriates in both countries, seized Diallo’s campaign materials and apparently interfered with the electoral roll itself.
Many argue that, in the face of such skullduggery, it is vital that external powers do more than just express the “deep regrets” conveyed by the EU when Condé first attempted to bend the constitution to his will.
European Views says: “Given that President Trump has apparently abdicated the USA’s mantle of global leadership, it’s now more important than ever that the EU stands up for democracy around the world.
“The results of what happens when it is trampled underfoot are currently playing out in Belarus; a similarly rigged election, followed by a brutal clampdown on peaceful protests, could be on the cards in Guinea too.
“The time to prevent such a nightmare scenario from repeating itself on African soil is now: the EU, Guinea’s most important trade partner, must act decisively and expeditiously if it is to avoid Guinea becoming another Belarus in just a few weeks’ time.”
Coincidentally, the European Parliament is this week marking Africa Week where the focus is on "all things Africa".
While it is usually under the EU radar, events in the Guinea in the next few days will be very much under the spotlight in Brussels and other capitals.
Commission approves €400 million Danish aid scheme to support production of electricity from renewable energy sources
The European Commission has approved, under EU state aid rules, a Danish aid scheme to support electricity production from renewable sources. The measure will help Denmark reach its renewable energy targets without unduly distorting competition and will contribute to the European objective of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. Denmark notified the Commission of its intention to introduce a new scheme to support electricity produced from renewable energy sources, namely onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines, wave power plants, hydroelectric power plants and solar PV.
The aid will be awarded through a competitive tendering procedure organised in 2021-2024 and will take the form of a two-way contract-for-difference premium.. The measure has a total maximum budget of approximately €400 million (DKK 3 billion). The scheme is open until 2024 and aid can be paid out for a maximum of 20 years after the renewable electricity is connected to the grid. The Commission assessed the measure under EU state aid rules, in particular the 2014 Guidelines on state aid for environmental protection and energy.
On this basis, the Commission concluded that the Danish scheme is in line with EU state aid rules, as it will facilitate the development of renewable electricity production from various technologies in Denmark and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in line with the European Green Deal and without unduly distorting competition.
Executive Vice President Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy (pictured), said: “This Danish scheme will contribute to substantial reductions in greenhouse emissions, supporting the objectives of the Green Deal. It will provide important support to a wide range of technologies generating renewable electricity, in line with EU rules. The wide eligibility criteria and the selection of the beneficiaries through a competitive bidding process will ensure the best value for taxpayers money and will minimise possible distortions of competition.”
Russia: Summoning of the Russian Ambassador to the EU
European Commission Secretary General Ilze Juhansone and External Action Service Secretary General Stefano Sannino jointly summoned the Ambassador of Russian Federation to the European Union Vladimir Chizhov (pictured) to condemn the decision of the Russian authorities from last Friday (30 April) to ban eight European Union nationals from entering the territory of the Russian Federation.
Ambassador Chizhov was informed of the strong rejection and firm condemnation by the EU institutions and EU member states of this decision, which was purely politically motivated and lacks any legal justification.
Secretaries-General I. Juhansone and S. Sannino also recalled Russia's expulsion of Czech diplomats and the executive order of the Russian Federation of so called “unfriendly states”, expressing their grave concern for the cumulative impact of all these decisions on the relations between the EU and the government of the Russian Federation.
They also noted that the EU reserves the right to take appropriate measures in response.
Parliament launches the Daphne Caruana Galizia journalism prize
The European Parliament has launched a journalism prize in tribute to Daphne Caruana Galizia (pictured), a Maltese investigative journalist murdered in 2017.
The Daphne Caruana Galizia Prize for Journalism, launched on 16 October 2020, the third anniversary of her death, will reward outstanding journalism reflecting EU values.
"The Daphne Caruana Galizia Prize will recognize the essential role that journalists play in preserving our democracies and serve as a reminder to citizens of the importance of a free press. This prize is designed to help journalists in the vital and often dangerous work they do and show that the European Parliament supports investigative journalists," said Parliament Vice President Heidi Hautala.
Prize money of €20,000
The €20,000 annual prize will be awarded as of October 2021 to journalists or teams of journalists based in the European Union. Candidates and the eventual laureate will be chosen by an independent panel.
Who was Daphne Caruana Galizia?
Daphne Caruana Galizia was a Maltese journalist, blogger and anti-corruption activist who reported extensively on corruption, money laundering, organised crime, sale of citizenship and the Maltese government’s links to the Panama Papers. Following harassment and threats, she was murdered in a car bomb explosion on 16 October 2017.
The outcry over the authorities’ handling of her murder investigation ultimately prompted the resignation of Prime Minister Joseph Muscat. Critical of failings in the investigation, in December 2019, MEPs called on the European Commission to take action.
Published on 28 April, the report Platform to promote the protection of journalism and safety of journalists from the Council of Europe lists 201 serious violations of media freedom in 2020. This figure marks a 40% increase from 2019 and is the highest figure recorded since the platform was established in 2014. A record number of alerts concerned physical assault (52 cases) and harassment or intimidation (70 cases).
Parliament strongly advocates the importance of a free press. In a May 2018 resolution, MEPs called on EU countries to ensure adequate public funding and to promote a pluralist, independent and free media. Parliament has once again underlined the importance of media freedom in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Watch this Facebook live interview about the Daphne Caruana Galizia Journalism Prize.
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